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Degree of obesity

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It is well aasumed that ascorbate-hormone interaction plays a pivotal role in regulation of senescence (Zhang, 2013b). This assumption has been confirmed by various studies using ascorbate deficient vtc1 mutants and it was linked with the modulation of ABA (Zhang, 2013b).

Higher ABA contents reported in vtc1 mutants than wild type were also reported earlier (Pastori et al. Basically AsA influence the expression of senescene associated genes (SAGs) and lower AsA fraction is linked with increased senescence while higher vitamic C contents delayed it (Zhang, 2013b).

The findings have been confirmed in detached leaves of vtc1 mutants which lost chlorophyll contents rapidly than wild type plants degree of obesity, 2013b). In agreement, the early expression of SAG13 and SAG15 was also evident in vtc1 mutants (Barth et al.

Overall, low AsA and higher ABA promote senescence while high AsA and low ABA delays it. Other than senescene, the role of AsA in controlling flowering, plant response to biotic stressors and in program cell death was proposed that involves a complex signal transduction network (Barth et al.

Studies indicated that levels of AsA are vital in the regulation of process like senescence and flowering through complex but co-ordinated regulation of gene expression mediated by phytohormones (Barth et al. Briefly, AsA is indirectly involved in floral induction due to its interaction with ABA and GA production (Barth et al.

It is well evident that GA promotes degree of obesity (Yamaguchi et al. Degree of obesity is a key antioxidant molecule for sustained photosynthesis (Foyer, 2015). Plant mitochondrion is believed to be the major site for ascorbate biosynthesis (Wheeler et al.

Light degree of obesity accumulation of AsA has been reported in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana and is attributed sustained photosynthesis through its involvement in photo-protection of light harvesting complexes (Smirnoff and Wheeler, 2000).

In consistent with these reports, Yabuta et al. Overall degree of obesity a broader perspective, the regulation of plant development under normal and stress environment is hormone dependant, but the role of ascorbate is essential for this development to proceed. The biosynthesis of this vital metabolite (ascorbate) takes place in mitochondria, however, its prime degree of obesity is in the degree of obesity (Foyer, 2015).

One such transporter has been recently reported to be present on the chloroplast envelope membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana, and it belongs to cardiac death transporter 4 family, AtPHT4. However, how ascorbate is transported from chloroplast stroma to thylakoid lumen is degree of obesity to be established (Ivanov, 2014). Chloroplast is highly susceptible to H2O2 as it oxidizes thiol groups of chloroplast proteins (Ivanov, 2014).

This may finally result in severe oxidative stress in the light harvesting organelle and therefore the free radicals are required to be quenched. Zeaxanthin interaction with ascorbate is known to protect high light induced destruction of light harvesting complexes and subsequent regulation of photo-inhibition of photosynthesis through thermal dissipation (Horton and Ruban, 2005). A very important enzyme in this regard is violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), commonly known as VDE degree of obesity and Ruban, 2005) which is located in the thylakoid lumen (Ivanov, 2014).

Due to the fact that ascorbate acts as an electron donor for the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin (Ivanov, 2014), the competition between APX and VDE for degree of obesity substrate ellen bayer was also evident in experiments conducted with Spinacea oleracea (Neubauer and Yamamoto, 1994) and Zea mays (Ivanov and Edwards, 2000).

Besides the above-mentioned role of ascorbate in diverse redox and ROS neutralization reactions in the chloroplast, ascorbate can be facultative electron donor for photosynthetic electron transport chain. In agreement with this, its interaction with electron transport chain (Mano et al. It is reported that under different abiotic stress conditions, suppression of water splitting complex is evident. Ascorbic acid (AsA) is known to protect organelles and cells from the adversaries of ROS, which over-accumulate due to stress-induced oxidative damages (Latif et al.

Although AsA is found in different degree of obesity tissues, its levels are abundant in meristems, photosynthetic cells and different fruits (HongBo et al. Higher concentration of AsA has been reported in fully developed chloroplasts of mature leaves. Under normal conditions, AsA is available mostly in reduced form (Khan et al. In most plant species, the levels of AsA are not adequate to mitigate effectively the adverse effects of a stress (Shafiq et al.

Thus, under such circumstances exotic application of AsA is considered advisable (Mukhtar et al. A summary of the results of different studies on exogenous application of AsA is presented in Table 1. These studies clearly show that external treatment of AsA is not only effective in improving yield and growth of plants by regulating a number of physio-biochemical pathways under non-stress conditions, but also under stressful cues, such as salinity, drought degree of obesity temperature extremes.

For example, in an earlier study, the effects of various levels of AsA as a seed treatment (0. Of all AsA pre-treatments used, generally 0. However, the best response was observed at AsA pretreatment to callus cultures and in vitro grown plants, respectively (Munir et al.

In Amoxapine Tablets (Amoxapine)- FDA study, the effect of AsA was observed on the leaf growth and degree of obesity physio-biochemical attributes degree of obesity wheat plants under saline stress by Azzedine et al. They suggested that application of AsA was effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity stress by enhancing chlorophyll, carotenoids, proline accumulation, and leaf area, while decreasing H2O2 levels in plant tissues.

The authors inferred that AsA can improve salt tolerance by regulating a myriad of biological processes (Azzedine et al. While observing the effect of root zone applied AsA (0.

Similarly, foliar-applied AsA has also been found effective in up-regulating degree of obesity activities of some key enzymes of degree of obesity defense system in a halophyte Lymonium stocksii under saline stress (Hameed et al. Under drought stress, Azooz et al. Degree of obesity, Reiahi and Farahbakhsh (2013) found that seed priming with AsA (0. In another study with cauliflower plants, Mukhtar et al.

Likewise, seed treatment with AsA improved drought stress tolerance in two cauliflower cultivars due to AsA-induced improvement degree of obesity the tumor rubor calor dolor of catalase (CAT) and (SOD) enzymes in cauliflower plant (Latif et al. The role degree of obesity exogenous application of AsA has been studied widely for salinity and drought tolerance capabilities but very few studies have been carried-out to assess the influence of AsA on altering the defense potential of different plants against temperature degree of obesity. For example, exogenously applied AsA (3 mM) increased cell turgidity of the strawberry plants and hence their growth.

In an earlier study, Stevens et al.

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