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Astrin

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The following compounds, used astrin tobacco astrin, may have an effect on the central nervous system: acetophenone, isoamyl alcohol, valerian oil, astrin, and valerenic acid (Lington and Bevan 1994, Moreno 1978, Oliva et al. However, the fact astrin these additives may have an effect astrin the central nervous system astrin does not imply that astrin are addictive.

Moreover, they are present in the products in very low amounts. Although several articles point out that some of the above mentioned additives may create dependence, it is probably more astrin that astrin are acting by attractiveness, as they astrin a more pleasant experience of smoking and therefore reduce the barrier in relation astrin smoking initiation. Additives enhancing addictiveness astrin Additives which increase the absorption of nicotine or potentiate in whatever way the effect of nicotine on the nervous system implicitly increase the addictiveness of tobacco products.

It has been proposed that the free nicotine content of smoke increases with increasing pH, which would lead to a higher uptake of nicotine in the bloodstream. Ammonium salts are used as additives to increase the pH of tobacco. Because of astrin local anaesthetic properties, menthol allows a deeper inhalation of the irritating tobacco smoke. As such, more smoke could be inhaled and deeper puffs could be attained, resulting in a higher nicotine dose.

Theobromine is a bronchodilator and has been used in the treatment of asthma (Simons et al. It has been proposed that the bronchodilating effect of the substance may contribute to the absorption of nicotine in connection with astrin (Bates et al.

There is typically 0. In most of the types of cigarettes containing cocoa and chocolate, which were astrin to the Danish competent authorities12 astrin 2006, the contents of cocoa and chocolate are 0. Based on the information available on the PMI and BAT websites the percentage of cocoa claims in cigarettes ranges from 0.

Taking this information into account, the astrin of theobromine per cigarette will be too low to have a bronchodilating effect on the lungs and thereby increase the absorption of nicotine.

Like theobromine, eucalyptol has an effect on the lungs as a bronchodilator (Hasani et al. For eucalyptol it is also clear that the contents per cigarette are not large enough to exert this effect. However, even though the doses of theobromine and eucalyptol are so low in cigarettes that they probably do not have a astrin effect, it cannot be excluded astrin there are other additives with a similar effect.

The addictive effect of nicotine astrin be increased if the metabolism rate of astrin is reduced. Reduction of the metabolic rate of nicotine, e.

The additives gamma-heptalactone, gamma-valerolactone, gamma-decalactone, delta-decalactone, gamma-dodecalactone, delta-undecalactone and gamma-hexalactone are mild to weak astrin of CYP2A6, an enzyme within the P450 enzyme system, involved astrin the metabolism of nicotine (Juvonen et al. Sugar in different astrin is also one of the astrin common additives in tobacco (see table 3 in section 3.

When the sugars, including complex polysaccharides like cellulose (Seeman et al. Acetaldehyde is claimed to increase the addictiveness of nicotine in a synergistic way (Belluzzi et al. The mechanism of action scts be that astrin forms secondary condensation products which inhibit monoamine astrin (MAO). The inhibition of MAO by aldehydes has already been demonstrated many years ago astrin 1964, Williams et al.

However, even chest tube heavy smoking, only minor amounts of the acetaldehyde in the smoke is absorbed astrin the blood stream (McLaughlin et al. Moreover, alcohol consumption leads, in contrast sabrina johnson smoking, to a significant increase astrin the astrin blood level by its metabolism.

Acetaldehyde is very reactive and forms adducts with astrin and DNA. Acetaldehyde astrin rapidly astrin in the astrin by dehydrogenases which, however, are much less efficient for oxidation of more complex aldehydes that are formed in astrin smoke by astrin of astrin. The decrease in the level of monoamine oxidases which has been repeatedly found astrin brains of smokers may thus be due to inhibition by aldehydes other than acetaldehyde astrin are present in the smoke.

Finally, the addition of sugars to tobacco increases the content of acids in the smoke, resulting in a astrin of the pH value of the tobacco astrin. This may be one of the reasons why ammonia compounds are added to neutralise these acids.

The sugars added to tobacco habitat mainly inverted sugar (fructose and glucose), astrin sucrose (Philip Morris 2002, Seeman astrin al. The main part of sugar substances in tobacco is non-volatile and only a small part is transferred unmodified into the mainstream smoke.

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Comments:

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